Vladimir was the opposite of his cousin Leo.
First of all, he made a successful campaign in Lithuania. As a result of this campaign, one of his sons Roman received a parish in Belarus, and another – Shvarno – married the daughter of Lithuanian Prince Mindaugas. At the same time, a military alliance was made between Daniel and Mindauh against the Golden Horde.
At the end of 1254, Daniel went on the offensive against Kuremsa and defeated his troops. The prince wanted to go further and liberate Kyiv, but Mindauh broke his alliance with Daniel and opposed him. During 1255-1256, military clashes with Lithuania continued, parishes in White Russia were lost, and Prince Roman Danilovich died.
In 1259 the Mongol-Tatar army led by Burundai unexpectedly moved to Galicia and Volhynia. Burundai ordered the princes to destroy the fortifications of Volodymyr-Volynskyi, Lutsk, Kremenets, Lviv, and others. The Galicia-Volyn principality again recognized the power of the Horde khans.
In 1264 Prince Daniel died. In Ukrainian historiography, he is considered the most prominent of all the rulers of the western principalities. He managed to unite the lands of Galicia and Volhynia into one state, to curb Polish and Hungarian expansion, and to raise the socio-economic and cultural level of his possessions to one of the highest in Eastern Europe. Not all his plans were successful. Danilov failed to keep Kyiv and realize his dream of freeing himself from the Mongol-Tatar yoke.
After Danylo’s death, the Galicia-Volyn principality passed into the hands of his brother Vasylko. Danylo’s sons ruled in Galicia: Lev – in Halych and Przemyśl, Mstislav – in Terebovlia, Shvarno – in Belz and Kholm.
At the end of the XIII century. the Galician-Volyn principality was attacked again by the Golden Horde, and many towns and villages were destroyed. The khans demanded an increase in tribute and participation in campaigns. Lev and Vasilko could not repel the Horde.
In 1270 Prince Vasilko died, handing over Volhynia to his son Volodymyr. Vladimir was the opposite of his cousin Leo. If Lev Danilovich a tree grows in brooklyn summary chapter 29-35 pursued an active foreign policy, made several campaigns in Poland, Hungary, annexed Transcarpathian Russia, Vladimir focused on solving peaceful issues – the construction of cities, castles, churches. He left a memory as a supporter of education and culture.
As noted in the chronicle, under Prince Yuri, son of Leo, Galicia-Volyn land was "in honor and respect, full of wealth and glory." The event that took place in 1303 testifies to Yuri’s authority. Dissatisfied with the decision of the Metropolitan of Kyiv to move his residence to Volodymyr-na-Klyazmi (capital of the Volodymyr-Suzdal principality), Yuriy agreed to the Patriarch of Constantinople to establish a separate metropolis in Galicia. Yuri died in 1308.
The last two members of the Romanov dynasty were Yuri’s sons Andrew and Leo, who ruled together. they were concerned about the growing power of Lithuania, and they established allied relations with Poland and the Crusaders of the Teutonic Order. However, the war with Lithuania was unsuccessful. With regard to the Mongol-Tatars, Andrew and Leo pursued an independent policy. According to some sources, they died in 1323 in one of the battles with the Horde.
After a short boyar rule in 1325, the boyars invited the Mazovian prince Boleslaw Troydenowicz, who was married to his sister Andrew and Leo Maria, to rule in the Galician-Volyn land. Boleslav accepted the Orthodox faith and took the name Yuri. He did not support the boyars, as they had hoped, but pursued an independent domestic and foreign policy. He fought with Poland and returned the lands captured by it. At the same time he tried to improve relations with the Horde and the Lithuanian principality. He married his daughter to the son of Lithuanian Prince Gediminas Lubart and proclaimed him his successor. This caused dissatisfaction of the people, which took advantage of the boyars and in 1340 poisoned the prince. Thus, their own nobility lost the last prince, and neighboring states began to interfere directly in the affairs of the Galicia-Volyn principality.
Thus, in the second half of XIII – first half of XIV century. the center of Ukrainian statehood passes to the Galicia-Volyn principality. After the proclamation of Daniel as king for neighboring monarchs, the name "Kingdom of Russia" in relation to the Galicia-Volyn principality became common. From the beginning of the XIV century. the image of a golden lion on a blue shield becomes the state emblem. This image can be found for the first time on the seal that fastened the deed, dated 1316.
The flag of the principality was a blue canvas with the image of a lion. The prince all the functions of state power – performed legislative, executive and judicial, so the chronicler calls him an "autocrat." Ancient chamber in the XII – XIII centuries. practically lost its significance, although the prince convened a people’s assembly to address important issues. He had the advice of the boyars. For internal management there was a system of princely rulers. The defense of each land was organized by a thousandth, who was appointed from the boyars. The prince’s possessions were managed by a tablemaker.
Galicia and Volhynia were divided on land, and those, in turn, – on the parish with centers in the cities. The cities were ruled by the boyar-patrician elite. From the first half of the XIV century. some cities began to acquire the Magdeburg right, which provided them with self-government. The first such city in 1334 was Sanok. The state treasury was replenished by taxes from residents of cities and parishes, duties from merchants who traded in salt. In circulation, as everywhere in Russia, there were ingots of silver, which were called hryvnias. The armed forces consisted of the people’s militia and boyar wives.
Thus, the XII – XIII centuries. in Russia – a period of feudal fragmentation. The only ancient state before that broke up into separate principalities. Against the background of the decline of Kyiv land on Ukrainian territory, the Galicia-Volyn principality (Kingdom of Russia) is rising. It becomes the bearer of Ukrainian statehood.
However, in 1239-1240 the Mongol-Tatar invasion began. The invaders practically destroyed the economy of Ukraine, its material and spiritual culture. Kyiv has lost its former significance.
In the second half of the XIII – early XIV centuries. The Galicia-Volyn principality achieved significant economic, political and cultural development, its dependence on the Horde was weaker than other Ukrainian lands. But he had to constantly defend himself from aggression by Poland, Hungary and Lithuania, which at that time had become strong centralized nation-states.
Boyko OD History of Ukraine. – K., 1999. Borisenko VY Course of Ukrainian history. From ancient times to the XX century .: Textbook. way. – K, 1996. Chain V. Essays on the history of Ukraine (late XVIII – early XX centuries.). – Lviv, 1996.
Settlement of the Ukrainian Azov region in the 16th – 18th centuries: the role of the Cossacks. Abstract
The role of the Cossacks in the settlement of certain regions of Ukraine and the creation of various settlements is extremely important. This question has repeatedly attracted the attention of researchers since the eighteenth century. and has been covered in considerable detail in a number of works
But only some of them, such as AA Skalkovsky, DI Yavornytsky, VA Pirko, RI Saenko, considered the role of the Cossacks in the settlement of the Ukrainian Azov region. This is not accidental, because until now, researchers of the history of the Azov region are discussing the contribution of different ethnic groups to the settlement and development of this region.
Thus, the problem of settlement of the Ukrainian Azov region and the formation of ethnic composition of the population is very relevant and insufficiently studied, as this region has a complex ethnic history and does not yet have a clear position in the views of scholars on the role of a particular ethnic group (Ukrainian, Russian or Greek). settlement. As you know, by the middle of the eighteenth century. the name "Wild Field", ie the devastated Black Sea steppes, became attached to this region.
The question of its settlement has not been the subject of special research for a long time, and the role of the Ukrainian ethnos, and hence the role of the Ukrainian Cossacks in its development, has been almost completely rejected or diminished. Such views can be refuted only by unbiased studies of the process of settlement of the region and the formation of the ethnic composition of its population, which is the object of our study.
The Ukrainian Azov region is an important industrial and agricultural region of our state. Due to its location, this region has long been among the most populous, because since the ninth century. through its lands there was a trade route between the Slavic lands and the countries of the Caucasus and the Middle East. However, from the thirteenth century. Priazov lands were devastated by the Mongol-Tatar invasion, and this area was originally part of the Golden Horde, and from the fifteenth century. – Crimean Khanate. Thus, the south-eastern Ukrainian lands in the XIV – XVI centuries. were almost devastated, as the Ukrainian population, which began to settle here during the Polish-Lithuanian state, retreated to safer lands, and this region became a terrain where Crimean and Nogai Tatars migrated.
Regarding the beginning of the settlement of the Ukrainian Azov region, AA Skalkovsky believed that it became possible only in the 70s of the 16th century, with the emergence of the local grassroots Cossacks, when the Ukrainian Cossacks split and the Zaporozhian Lower Army was created. The emergence of such a strong military-political union on the border with the Crimean Khanate became an outpost for Tatar attacks, which, in turn, contributed to a new influx of population into the region and further development of devastated lands in the XVI – XVII centuries.
The fact that the Zaporozhian Cossacks really appeared on the shores of the Sea of Azov since the sixteenth century. confirms RI Saenko, citing archaeological finds, including the remains of some Cossack winterers – fortified hamlets with things of Cossack fishermen, which were found near the river Kalmius in 1931 during the construction of the metallurgical plant "Azovstal".
Another researcher NN Yatsyuk, considering another reason for the settlement of the Azov Sea, predicts that it was associated with the search of the Zaporozhian Cossacks for another way to the Black Sea, because the Cossacks, going on naval campaigns against the Crimean Khanate and Turkey , first went to the Black Sea by the Dnieper, which was quite dangerous, because in the early seventeenth century. the Turks built a fortified fortress Kizikermen on this place and blocked the river with a chain.
So the Cossacks had to find a safer way. According to NN