Pavelleka, logistics was due to military affairs.
However, by knowing the relationship between contradictory and opposing judgments (or contradictory judgments and those that are in relation to subordination), it is sometimes possible to draw reliable conclusions.
If the proposition is false, then the corresponding proposition O is by all means true. A similar relationship exists between the false judgment of O and the true I. However, from the truth / does not follow the conclusion about the truth or the falsity of O. This also applies to the conclusions from the information about the truth of O.
The dependence of the true value of judgments of type A, /, E, O, which are about the same thing, can be conveyed using such a scheme.
A E I 0
and X and X
X X and and X and X and
Types of simple judgments on modality
Modality – a characteristic of judgment, which is determined by the principle of distinguishing between objectively possible, valid and necessary.
This is an objective modality. And formal logic is primarily interested in logical modality, which consists in the degree of established validity of opinions due to one or another kind of judgment.
According to the objective modality, judgments are divided into judgments of necessity, reality and possibility. For example: «After spring comes summer» (judgment of necessity); «Summer this year is warm» (judgment of reality); «In the third millennium, humanity can abandon wars forever» (judgment of possibility).
According to the logical modality, ie depending on the degree of their proof, judgments are divided into problematic (probable) and reliable.
A problematic judgment is a judgment in which something is asserted or denied with a certain degree of assumption.
For example: «The reason for the massive defeat of cucumbers, apparently, is the low temperature.»
Problematic judgments must be distinguished from judgments of possibility. They are, in fact, judgments about judgments. This is evidenced by the relevant words: «I think that» «it is possible that» and others. When the words that express an objective possibility include words, they will distort the idea: the real possibility will be replaced by probability, and the judgment will be problematic.
Reliable judgment – a judgment that contains knowledge, substantiated, tested in practice.
For example: «Animals breathe oxygen.»
Variety of logistics definitions. Abstract
Changes in management orientation led to the development of a new concept of material flow management, called «logistics»
The essence of the concept is to integrate all functional areas related to the passage of material flow from producer to consumer in a single complex, called the logistics complex. The concept includes significant reserves for corporate cost savings. Studies conducted by the National Council of Physical Distribution Management (USA) have shown that the introduction of an integrated logistics system can lead to savings of 10-20% of total corporate costs.
Modern methods of improving the efficiency of material flow management are of practical interest to the Ukrainian economy, their use will enable the enterprises of our country to operate effectively in both domestic and foreign markets.
The Greek word «logistics» (the art of taking into account) – is used in the languages of many peoples (logistic – English, logistik – German, logistique – French, logistica – Italian, etc.). According to T. Pavellek, logistics became a science due to military affairs. The Byzantine emperor Leon VI (865-912 p.) Defined the tasks of logistics as follows: movement and distribution of their own armed forces. «
Only in the 60’s of XX century, these principles of logistics began to be applied not only in the supply system of armies, but also in the industry of some Western European countries.
Intensive development of logistics in the non-military sector is associated with the energy crisis of the early 70’s. It was then that specialists turned to logistics as one of the effective forms of integration of production, transportation, distribution and sale of goods with the wide involvement of modern technical means.
There are many definitions of logistics, because it is a new scientific direction that is in the process of formation. In addition, the difficulties in defining the concept of logistics are explained by the fact that logistics has many sections, as evidenced by its functions.
According to one of the most general definitions, logistics is the theory and practice of material flow management. From the point of view of the manager, logistics is interpreted as the organization of management of purposeful preparation and expedient use of the means and services necessary for the decision of concrete tasks.
Logistics acts as a certain production infrastructure of the economy. It is based on a clear interaction of demand, supply, production, transportation and distribution of products. Logistics begins with primary sources of raw materials or production of semi-finished products, continues in the circulation of materials and semi-finished products within the production process of the enterprise and ends with the delivery of finished products to the consumer to achieve economic goals of the entrepreneur.
From the standpoint of marketing, logistics – the process of managing the production, movement and storage of materials and goods, as well as related information flows through the organization of trade channels, and current and future costs are minimized by highly efficient execution and delivery of orders.
The main functions of macrologistics are as follows:
quality control, distribution of products by production units of the enterprise; processing of transported goods – accounting and management of stocks, their movement, communication and organization of information flows; packaging of products, their storage, warehousing, loading and unloading operations; marketing – financing and mutual settlements, demand planning based on market research, organization of supply and sales service; consumption – designing orders for products, warehousing, customer support, order financing.
Thus, logistics at the present stage should be considered as a key element of the competitive market strategy of the enterprise, as a key primary activity to ensure competitive advantage.
Logistics proclaims the priority of the consumer, ie 100% fulfillment of contractual obligations, a high level of service. At the same time, the application of logistics recommendations is beneficial to suppliers. Thus, at Ford enterprises, the use of the «just in time» system made it possible to reduce stocks by 40% in two years. According to prof. A. Smekhov, the implementation of the basic provisions of logistics makes it possible to reduce the cost of transportation and storage of products by 15-20%, reduce inventory by 50%, reduce the duration of the operating cycle by 50-70%.
Thus, logistics harmonizes the interests of suppliers and consumers. The concept of logistics is based on the following principles.
1. Consideration of the movement of material resources from the primary source to the final consumer as a single material flow. The elements that form the material flow of the enterprise are technologically related, and the costs caused by them are economically dependent. This means that changes in one activity affect others, and attempts to reduce individual costs can lead to higher total costs.
Insufficiently operational actions of supply services can have a negative impact on the work of the production and coordination department, whose irresponsibility, in turn, disrupts the activities of the sales department. The desire to optimize the work of production units can lead to overloading warehouses with one type of product and untimely provision of another.
Low transportation costs can be a good goal if the transport service tries to achieve it without sacrificing speed and reliability of delivery, if you do not need to increase the cost of maintaining stocks. The larger the batch of parts that are put into production, the lower the cost of retrofitting the equipment. However, the cost of maintaining work in progress is increasing. On the contrary, as the volume of the party decreases, the costs of maintaining the stock decrease, and the costs of re-equipment increase. The location of production facilities, warehouses, technical control points affects transport costs.
The main characteristic of the material flow of the enterprise is continuity. Throughout the technological cycle of product supply, each of its participants must provide consumers on a «just in time» basis, but these actions must be accompanied by a minimum total cost associated with the movement.
Given the relationship between the that form the material flow of the enterprise, its cross-functional stages nature and taking into account the target orientation, logistics involves the use of organizational and management coordination mechanisms – logistics systems.
The organizational mechanism is associated with achieving a sufficient level of integration through appropriate changes in the management structure of the enterprise. The organizational structure may be different and depend on the nature of the products, the number of its consumers, material consumption, the size of the enterprise, etc.
The management mechanism is associated with the implementation of specially designed management procedures, the basis of which is the planning of supply, production, marketing, storage and transportation as a single material flow.
2. Introduction of logistics systems – organizational and managerial mechanisms for coordinating the actions of specialists of various services that manage the material flow.
The concept of «logistics system» is used in relation to the authorities and is characterized by two features. On the one hand, the logistics system is an organized set of structural elements that function to achieve a single goal, on the other hand – a plan by which the subject of management seeks to achieve it.